(PD; Paralysis Agitans; Shaking Palsy)
- Muscle rigidity
- Tremor at rest
- Slowing down of movements (bradykinesia)
- Difficulty moving and gait instability
|Part of the Brain Affected by PD—Yellow Section|
|Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.|
- Antipsychotic drugs, such as haloperidol (Haldol), fluphenazine (Prolixin), trifluoperazine (Stelazine), and chlorpromazine (Thorazine)
- Antinausea/gastric motility medications such as prochlorperazine and metoclopramide
- Cardiovascular drugs, such as some calcium channel blockers and antiarrhythmic drugs
- Valproic acid (a medication used for seizures, migraines, and bipolar disorder)
- Carbon monoxide poisoning
- Manganese poisoning
- Brain tumors
- IV drug abuse contaminated by MPTP (a type of neurotoxin)
- Reserpine (medicine to treat schizophrenia and high blood pressure)
- Insecticide exposure
- "Pill-rolling" tremor in the hands
- Tremors are present at rest, improve with movement, and are absent during sleep
- Stiffness and rigidity of muscles, usually beginning on one side of the body
- Difficulty and shuffling when walking
- Short steps
- Slowness of purposeful movements
- Trouble performing usual tasks, due to shaking in hands and slowness of movement
- Trouble speaking (often speaking with a low volume)
- Flat, monotonous voice
- Shaky, spidery, or small handwriting
- Poor balance
- Difficulty with rising from a sitting position
- Seborrhea (a skin problem that causes a red rash and white scales)
- Loss of smell
- Urinary symptoms (frequency and urgency)
- Bowel movement symptoms (straining, constipation)
- Tendency to fall
- Stooped posture
- Increasingly mask-like face, with little variation in expression
- Trouble chewing and swallowing
- Drooling and excessive salivation
- Difficulty thinking, problems with memory
- Decreased sense of smell
- Sleep problems such as REM-behavior disorder
- Blood tests
- Urine tests
- CT scan—a type of x-ray that uses a computer to make pictures of structures inside the head
- MRI scan—a test that uses magnetic waves to make pictures of structures inside the head
- PET scan—a scan that makes images that show the amount of activity in the brain. A special kind of PET scan called a DAT scan may be used in the evaluation of PD.
- Levodopa/carbidopa (Sinemet)
- Amantadine (Symmetrel)
- Anticholinergics: benztropine (Cogentin) and biperiden (Akineton)
- Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, such as selegiline (Eldepryl)
- Dopamine agonists: bromocriptine (Parlodel), pramipexole (Mirapex), Cabergoline (Dostinex), Rotigotine (Neupro), apomorphine (Apokyn), and ropinirole (Requip)
- COMT inhibitors: entacapone (Comtan) and tolcapone (Tasmar)
- Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
- Tricyclic antidepressant (such as, nortriptyline)
- Antipsychotic medicine (such as, clozapine)
- Deep brain stimulation (DBS)—implanting a device to stimulate certain parts of the brain; can decrease tremor and rigidity
- Thalamotomy and pallidotomy—destroying certain areas of the brain to improve tremor when medication does not work (not as common as deep brain stimulation)
- Nerve-cell transplants (research only)—to increase amount of dopamine made in the brain
National Parkinson Foundation http://www.parkinson.org
Parkinson's Disease Foundation http://www.pdf.org
Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca
Parkinson Society Canada http://www.parkinson.ca
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- Reviewer: Rimas Lukas, MD
- Review Date: 09/2012 -
- Update Date: 00/91/2012 -